Hoof Balance: The Key To Soundness

Barefoot or shod, poor hoof balance is one of the most common causes of lameness in a horse’s foot. There are many factors affecting balance including conformational faults, injury, disease, nutrition, environment and poor shoeing/trimming.

This is a complex topic. In a nutshell, it is the practice of trimming a hoof in three dimensions: height, width, and depth. Achieving the proper relationship between the three allows the horse to move better and more naturally.
This puts less strain on bones, tendons and ligaments.

There is no formula or measurement for “perfect balance”. Evaluation is an acquired skill that demands practice and careful observation of the horse, both standing still and in motion. Each horse’s requirements will be different, and it is up to the farrier or trimmer to assess your horse for optimum balance.

To find a farrier or trimmer with the skills necessary to care for your horse’s feet, ask the following questions:

Do you have local references?

What is your level of education, certification or training?

What do you think constitutes a balanced hoof?

How do you achieve a balanced hoof?

Your horse will need to be trimmed at intervals of about 5-8 weeks, depending upon how fast your horse grows hoof. Growth can be affected by season and other factors so this schedule may vary over the course of the year.

Proper balance is important in minimizing development of foot lameness. The majority of foot and leg diseases are caused or aggravated by unbalanced feet. Feet that are kept balanced are seldom lame!


Equine Dentistry

Floating is a common equine dentistry procedure, and most horse owners are familiar with its importance. But this is just one of many dental procedures that might be available from your veterinarian or equine dentist. Many other equine dental problems can develop and go undetected until severe pain becomes obvious.

The adult male horse has up to 44 permanent teeth, and a mare might have between 36 to 40 permanent teeth. Like people, horses get two sets of teeth in their lifetime. Equine baby teeth are temporary and by age five, most will have their full set of permanenthorse teeth.

The forward teeth, known as incisors, function to shear off forage. The cheek teeth, including the molars and premolars with their wide, flat, grooved surfaces, easily grind the feed before it is swallowed.

During grazing, the lips are drawn back to allow the incisors (front central teeth) to sever the grass at the base. Once the food enters the mouth, the horse begins chewing the food by grinding it. This occurs by moving the jaw in a side-to-side movement, not up-and-down. Molars do the hard work here. After several minutes of chewing, the food softens and is suitable for swallowing.

The horse is a continuous grazer, that is, both confined horses in a stall and free-ranging animals usually eat 10-12 hours daily for 30-180 minute intervals if quality horse hay or pasture is available.

But full confinement affects eating behavior. Confined horses fed concentrate or pelleted feed eat faster. Without access to pasture, horses don’t use their incisor teeth for shearing which could lead to overgrowth.

Changing a horse’s routine can inadvertently change the natural functions in your horse’s mouth. Dental problems can worsen without your knowledge. If your horse is beginning to resist the bit or failing to respond to common training techniques, it may be time to call in the equine dentist. A sensible dental hygiene program can get your horse’s choppers back in shape. There are a number of equine dentistry procedures to help.

Floating: Cheek teeth tend to develop sharp points even under normal grazing conditions. The horse’s lower jaw is narrower than the upper jaw and this, combined with the grinding motion of chewing, causes sharp points to form along the edges. Points form on the cheek side of the horse’s upper jaw and the tongue side of the lower jaw.
Floating is the “rasping,” or filing of points on the teeth to prevent them from cutting the cheek or tongue. Floating might also involve leveling the molars to allow free chewing motion.

Other dental problems that can be corrected by your veterinarian or horse dentist during routine equine dentistry procedures:

Retained Caps: All 24 baby teeth should be replaced by age five. Sometimes these teeth are not shed and result in a “retained cap,” which can cause inadequate chewing, loss of appetite and poor performance. These teeth may need to be extracted.

Wolf Teeth: Wolf teeth are very small teeth located in front of the second premolar. Lower wolf teeth are rare; but are sometimes found in lines of Standardbreds. A horse might have none or up to four wolf teeth. Although not all wolf teeth are a problem, veterinarians routinely remove them to prevent pain or interference from a bit.

Hooks: When cheek teeth are out of alignment, hooks can form. Hooks on the upper cheek teeth can interfere with biting. Hooks on the lower cheek teeth can force the horse to chew up and down, causing stress on the jaw muscle.

Canines: Canine teeth are sharp teeth used for tearing food. Canines are primarily found in the male horse and can become too sharp. These sharp teeth can cause injuries to other horses during play and may interfere with the bit. These teeth can be shortened and filed.

Keep An Eye On The Teeth

The earlier you catch equine dental problems, the better, so it’s important to schedule routine dentistry procedures.

Signs can be obvious (pain, mouth irritation) or subtle (dropping food, undigested food particles in manure, tongue lolling, excess salivation, bucking, failing to stop or turn, bad breath or facial swelling). Some horses might show no signs because they simply adapt to their discomfort!


Equine Body Language Speaks Volumes

Learn to read equine body language. Even without words, your horse has a lot to say. Her ears, facial expressions, tail and legs can provide clues to her emotional and physical state.

Ear-ly Warnings

• Neutral: Ears are held loosely upward, openings facing forward or outward.

• Pricked: Ears held stiff with openings pointed directly forward. The horse is alert.

• Airplane: Ears flop out laterally with openings facing down. The horse is tired or depressed.

• Drooped: Ears hang down loosely to the side, usually meaning tiredness or pain.

• Angled Backward: (with openings directed back towards a rider) Usually means attentiveness to the rider or listening to commands.

• Pinned Flat Against The Neck: Watch out! This horse is angry and aggressive. This is equine body language that you shouldn’t ignore!

Read My Lips…And Eyes And Nose

• Snapping: This is seen in foals showing submission to an older horse. They will open their mouths and draw back the corners, then open and shut their jaws.

• Jaws Open With Teeth Exposed: Aggression or possible attack.

• The Flehmen Response: Caused by an intense or unusual smell, usually in stallions when they sense a mare in heat.

They stick their nose in the air and curl the upper lip over their nose.• Flared Nostrils: Usually means they are
excited or alert. Could indicate colic.

• White Around The Eyes: Usually means they are angry or scared.

The Tell Tale Tail

• High: Alert or excited.

• Low: Exhaustion, fear, pain or submission.

• High Over Back: (as seen in most foals) Feeling playful or very alarmed.

• Swishing: Irritated. Also used to swish away flies. Can be a sign of colic.

Leg Looks

Sometimes, equine body language has more than one interpretation. You’ll get to know your horse’s “meanings” from watching her:

• Pawing: They are frustrated. Could be a sign of colic.

• Front-leg Lifted: Can be a mild threat or a normal eating stance.

• Back Leg Lifted: Often a more defensive threat. Sometimes used when resting or sleeping.

• Stamping: Indicates a mild threat or protest or a sign that flies are biting their legs.

Horse Talk: Vocal And Non-Vocal Communication

• Neighs or whinnies: High pitched, drawn out sounds that can carry over distances. Horses whinny to let others know where they are and to try to locate a herd mate.

• Nickers: Low-pitched and quiet. Stallions nicker when courting a mare, mare and foals nicker to each other and domestic horses nicker for food.

• Squeals or Screams: Usually denotes a threat by a stallion or mare. You’ll know it when you hear it.

• Blowing: Strong, rapid expulsion of air resulting in a high pitched “whooshing” sound. It’s usually a warning or alarm signal.

• Snorting: A more passive, shorter lower pitched version of blowing.


Daily Horse Checkup

Every day, do a daily horse checkup. This first impression of your horse can tell you a lot about her general condition.

Is she agitated or apathetic? Uninterested in her favorite horse treats? Look at her posture and behavior. Experience will help you interpret many of these subtle equine behaviors, but trust your gut if you think there’s a problem. You probably know more about horse health than you think!

When you feed her in the morning, check to see if she finished her last meal. If she didn’t finish her feed but will eat her horse treats, there may be a problem with the feed or the bucket. Clean the feed bucket and offer some fresh horse feed. If she refuses all feed and treats, it could be colic. Call your vet and refer to our Horse Colic Preparedness Report.

Do a body check whenever you bring her inside. If she is outside all the time, do a body check at each feeding. To do a body check, scan her body from head to tail. Use your hands and eyes, looking for cuts, swellings, heat or anything abnormal.

Pick out her hoofs, feeling for heat during the process. Heat in a hoof should be watched carefully. Do not allow this condition to persist beyond 24 hours. Call your farrier or veterinarian immediately if the heat seems excessive. Check for loose shoes if she’s wearing them. Hooves grow at different rates at different times of the year, so your farrier’s schedule may have to be adjusted occasionally. Look for bruising or wounds. Give her hooves a sniff; stinky feet can be a sign of equine thrush.

During the spring and summer, keep a close eye on skin problems. Skin disease can spread quickly if you don’t start treatment immediately.

Grooming is a good time to check for potentially serious conditions. Clean around the eyes, ears and nose and check for anything unusual. Discharge? Watery eyes? Keep YOUR eyes open! Work your hands down her legs, looking for swelling or irregularities.

When you bring her in from the field or turn her out, watch to see how she moves. Is she walking normally? Does she seem to be favoring one leg? Look for obvious swelling or wounds. Check her hooves for rocks. If there is no obvious source of lameness, stall your horse and call your vet. Until you have a clear and accurate diagnosis, do not ride your horse.

Being mindful of your horse’s condition and behavior during routine daily chores is often the first line of defense against illness or injury. Spending a few extra minutes doing a daily horse checkup to note any abnormality may identify a simple problem that could turn into a much larger one.


Common Equine Skin Problems

Common equine skin problems come in many forms and control is very important to stop the spread.

Your horse’s skin is very tempting. There’s lots of it (12 to 24% of the horse’s weight!) and it’s often sweaty. To insects, flies, bacteria and fungus, this is paradise on the hoof.

When your horse’s skin is compromised through illness or injury, it becomes more susceptible to infectious bacteria and biting insects. The result? Equine skin problems.

General inflammation of the skin is known as dermatitis. It can be caused by external irritants, burns, vaccines, allergens and trauma, as well as bacterial, viral, parasitic or fungal infections. Scratching, swelling and redness is followed by bumpy spots on the skin. There might be oozing, crusting and scaling.

Equine ringworm is a contagious fungal infection that can be spread from horse to horse, horse to human and human to horse. Symptoms may include skin lesions that appear as small (1/4″), rounded spots that will form blisters and break, leaving scabs. It is very itchy. Other ringworm forms appear on the forehead and face, neck, and at the root of the tail, but also can spread to other parts of the body. These lesions are grayish and form crusts on their surface.

Whatever the form, these equine skin problems need to be treated quickly. All grooming equipment needs to be disinfected and if possible, the horse should be isolated to prevent further spread of the disease. Topical medications will control the condition. Anti-bacterial solutions should be applied to the entire body of the affected animal on a daily basis for five to seven days, then weekly until the infection is controlled. Regular cleaning of yards, equipment and stables with disinfectant can help prevent ringworm.

Rain scald is a common equine skin problem found in wet, humid climates and is produced by the same bacteria that produces Mud Fever. The bacteria can live in dormancy for a long time and become active when the skin is compromised by wet conditions, high temperature and biting insects. Barrier creams can help in maintaining good skin condition.

Mange is a contagious skin disease caused by one of several species of mites. It can be transmitted horse to horse or through contaminated equipment. Hair loss and intense itching are symptoms of mange, often under the forelock and mane, at the root of the tail, under the chin, between the hind legs, and in the folds of skin where the forearm joins the chest. Unchecked, they can become a very serious health problem. Use of disinfectant helps to avoid cross contamination and reduce in spread of this equine skin condition.

Lice, easily controlled through frequent grooming and washing, may cause itching and hair loss. Of the many equine skin problems, this one is not very problematic.

Flies, ticks and all the other familiar biting and sucking insects can create equine skin problems. Aside from the discomfort, they can open the skin to invasion by other organisms. Regular grooming and washing can make a horse less attractive to insects.

Sweet itch is common in the spring and summer and it is caused by a hypersensitivity to midge bites. It usually occurs a long the mane and at the base of the tail, causing irritation. Stabling at dusk and dawn limits exposure to midges.

Acne is an infection characterized by the formation of pus. Acne is actually an inflammation of the hair follicles. It will be seen most frequently in parts of the body exposed to friction from saddle or harness. It can also be transmitted via biting flies. An afflicted animal will show signs of tenderness when the affected body part is touched. When mature, a yellow point appears at the affected spot. Shortly thereafter it will rupture, eliminating pus. Normally, in the wake of recovery, a permanent mark is left, frequently in the form of white hairs. When acne develops, irritation of the affected area through continued saddling or harnessing should be avoided. Bathing the area with tepid water and antibacterial solutions can be helpful.

Saddle Sores or Galls occur on the areas of skin under the saddle on riding horses and on the shoulder area of driving horses, usually due to poor fitting tack. The condition starts as an inflammation of the hair follicles and progresses to a pus-producing condition. There may be hair loss, swelling and pain. Advanced lesions are called “galls.” In severe cases, abscesses can develop.

The first line of treatment is absolute rest of the affected parts. Lesions can be treated by antibacterial agents and massage. Photosensitization is a condition in which lightly pigmented skin is hyperactive to sunlight due. It looks like sunburn but is usually caused by a reaction to something that the horse has eaten. The skin problem doesn’t appear until the horse is exposed to sunlight.

Mane and Tail Eczema is a form of dermatitis of the mane or tail head. A horse will rub against a fence post. Later, the skin becomes thickened, hard, and scaly. Washing the tail head or mane area with antibacterial shampoos can help solve the problem.

Mud Fever is a skin problem caused by a bacteria that lives in the soil. Damp, muddy conditions cause changes to the skin that make it more susceptible to this bacteria. Any break in the skin can also allow the bacteria to penetrate. The same bacteria is responsible for ‘cracked heels’, ‘greasy heel’ or ‘rain scald’. When the same condition occurs in the upper body, it is referred to as rain scald.

Mud Fever causes matted hair and scabs that form on the legs of the horse. It is usually seen around the coronet, heels and pastern, although scabs can form higher up in the legs and on the belly. In severe cases, the bacteria penetrates through the skin resulting in swelling as the bacteria multiplies, leading to lameness of the horse. In severe cases, antibiotics are prescribed. This can be a serious equine skin condition; act quickly if you suspect it.

Trim excess leg hair which helps to keep the skin dry and regularly brushing off of any mud once it has dried. Cleaning of the affected area, dry thoroughly and apply an anti-bacterial agent regularly until the scabs have healed.

Equine skin problems are very common. Many are easily prevented. Knowing how to identify common equine skin problems will help you act quickly to control them.


Bite Me: Your Guide To Horse Teeth

Horse teeth grow continuously. As they grow, fall out and wear down, a variety of equine dental conditions may develop. A general knowledge of equine dentistry and horse dental problems will help you better understand what’s going on in your horse’s mouth.

Horses have two sets of teeth, deciduous (baby) and permanent (adult). Horses have a set of deciduous premolars and incisors. All the other teeth come in as permanent teeth.

Incisors: The front teeth, just inside the lips. Used to grasp, nip and pull grass. If you’ve ever been bitten by a horse, you’re already familiar with incisors.

Cheek teeth: A general term used to indicate all the grinding and chewing teeth, the premolars and molars.

Premolars: The first three sets of large cheek teeth, top and bottom jaws, used for grinding. There is a full deciduous set followed by a full permanent set.

Molars: The second three sets of large cheek teeth, top and bottom jaws, used for grinding. There are no deciduous molars, they erupt as permanent teeth.

Canines: Usually found only in geldings or stallions, but sometimes seen in mares. These are the teeth that sit behind the incisors, often mistaken for the wolf teeth.

Wolf Teeth: The first premolar, usually found right before the first grinding tooth. Looks like a little fang and interferes with biting. These horse teeth can be present in the upper and lower jaw and cause pain and discomfort when the horse is ridden with the bit. They are usually removed.

Blind Wolf Teeth: Wolf Teeth that have not erupted through the gum line. These teeth, depending on their location, can cause extreme discomfort while the horse is ridden with the bit. These horse teeth can be found by a veterinarian or dental technician by feeling the gum tissue. They are often removed.

Cap: A term for a baby tooth as it sits in place on the permanent tooth ready to erupt. The loss of baby teeth as the new permanent teeth erupt to take their place is called “Shedding Caps”.

Crown: The portion of the tooth that gradually erupts into the mouth.

Eruption: The movement of the tooth crown out from the bone of the jaw into the horse’s mouth.

Arcade: Refers to a row of horse teeth.

Occlusion: The contact points of opposing teeth; occlusal surface refers to the chewing or biting surfaces.

Mastication: The act of chewing or grinding food.

Malocclusion: General term for bite problems or abnormal contact between opposing teeth. There are several kinds of maloccusions:-

Ventral Curvature: Incisors that resemble a smiley face.

Dorsal Curvature: Incisors that resemble a frown.

Wave Mouth: Cheek teeth that are wavy rather that flat.

Wave Incisors: Incisors that are wavy rather than flat.

Step Teeth: Teeth that are significantly taller than the other teeth, and stick out like a step.

Over Long Incisors: Pretty much as it sounds: the incisors are too long. This is caused by lack of wear from eating hay rather than grazing. When the horse’s incisors are too long he cannot chew effectively with his cheek teeth, this also puts stress on the temporomandibular joint which can lead to TMJ syndrome.

Parrot Mouth: This is a layman’s term for a severe over bite, known as inferior brachygnathism.

Monkey Mouth: This is a layman’s term for a severe under bite, known as inferior prognathism.

Your veterinarian or equine dentist can show you how to examine your horse’s teeth so that you can spot problems early. Keep an eye on your horse’s oral health to prevent pain, eating difficulties and possible tooth loss.


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